We ask all authors to follow the shared rules below, in order to facilitate the work of the webmaster and the Editorial Board.
Articles should be written using a Word for Windows file format.
A clear formatting is recommended with a limited number of carriage returns. This keeps the text compact, but, more importantly, should denote purely subject transitions and not individual sentences.
Articles should not be longer than 10 to 15 pages of 2000 characters (spaces included) per page.
In a footnote shall be inserted the full address of the author and any notes concerning the article.
The notes in the footer must be labeled with consecutive numbers. It is recommended to minimize the notes which, however, should never be used for references.
Summary or abstract
At the end of the article, before the references, two summaries should be written, one in Italian (Summary) and the other in English (Abstract). These shall consist of a maximum of 960 characters (spaces included) each, as recommended by various international databases, such as PsycINFO of the American Psychological Association.
Each summary must clearly contain the main points of the article, and must be expressed in the third person (e.g. “The author believes that…” or “Therapy is …”). Do not use the first person (i.e. “I believe that…”). At the beginning of the Abstract in English shall appear the title of the article, translated into English, entirely in capital letters.
After both the Summary (in Italian) and the Abstract (in English) shall be written respectively five keywords in Italian and five keywords in English. These keywords shall clearly indicate the topics covered in the article and are to be used for indexing in international databases and the journal’s annual review.
Punctuation marks and conventional signs
Never leave spaces before the following punctuation marks:
- . (period)
- , (comma)
- : (colon)
- ; (semi-colon)
- ! (exclamation mark)
- ? (question mark)
- “ (closing English quotation marks)
- » (closing guillemet quotation marks)
The use of three types of hyphen:
- short ( – ): are reserved for compound words (e.g. historical-critical) and number ranges (e.g. 1970-80, p. 46-47, p.XV-XVI);
- medium ( – ): are reserved for incidental phrases instead of brackets and must include a single space both before and after (e.g. «You see doctor – said the patient – while I was coming to see you…»);
- long ( — ): should not be used.
The use of years:
It is preferable to write, for example, ‘the 1920s’ rather than ‘the twenties’ in order to avoid misunderstandings concerning different centuries (especially important after the year 2000).
References within the text:
References in the body of the text are to be indicated with the author’s surname followed by a space and then the year of first publication in the original language between round brackets, for example, “Jung (1946) said that…”.
Otherwise references are to be indicated entirely between round brackets with the author’s surname followed by a comma, space and the year of first publication, for example “…(Jung, 1946)”. Brackets may be avoided if both the surname of the author and the year appear explicitly in the test and are not liable to be misunderstood (e.g. “in 1946 Jung said that…”).
Page numbers should be indicated in the text, inside brackets and preceded by “p.” after the year followed by a comma. Page numbers should not be indicated in the references at the end of the article so that various references may be made in the text to a unique and unrepeated reference entry at the end. If page numbers refer to the original language edition and not to a translation then “orig. ed.” must be added (e.g. “Neumann, 1953, p.66 orig. ed.”). If various translations are indicated then they must be referred to by year (e.g. “Neumann, 1953, p.97 trad. It. 1975).
If there are several publications by the same author in the same year, the year is followed by progressive lower case letters of the alphabet.
If there are in brackets multiple references to the same author with the page number indicated, then commas serve to separate one reference from the other and not the reference year from their respective pages. A semicolon is preferred in order to separate different authors within the same paragraph.
If there are two authors, both surnames must be written and connected by the “&” symbol, which can also be used to connect the last two authors if there are three of them. If there are more than three authors, the name of the first author should be written followed by “et al.” (written in italics because of Latin origin). Possible examples follow:
Jung (1939 said … According to the theory of archetypes of the collective unconscious (Jung, 1934/1954) … Also Jung (1952a, 1952b) stated that … In 1959, Jung concluded that … The principles of cognitive therapy (Beck et al., 1979) argue that … Kernberg (1981, p. 35) literally says that … According to the concept of the “representational world” (Sandler & Rosenblatt, 1962) … On several occasions, Freud (1899 p. 67, 1910 p. 220, 1914a p. 470) pointed out that … Various authors (Kohut, 1971, p. 103; Goldberg, 1978, p. 34; Basch, 1981, p. 154) stated that … There are many references to this (Kohut, 1971, p. 75; Freud, 1899 p. 102, 1910, p. 330). Eissler (1953) wrote that «every introduction of a parameter carries the risk that a resistance is temporarily eliminated without having been adequately analyzed» (p. 65). But Eissler (1953, p. 65) also said that «having removed an obstacle through a parameter, the meaning that this parameter had for the patient and the reasons for which it was a necessary choice must be examined in a retrospective manner».
References at the end of the article:
References at the end of the article should be listed unnumbered, in alphabetical order by first author’s surname and, in the case of similar surnames (e.g. Melanie Klein and George S. Klein), according to the initial of the first name. If both the surnames and initials of first names are the same, the first names should be written in full including, for clarity, the initial of any middle names, especially if the authors have the same initial for their first names (e.g. Daniel N. Stern and Donnel B. Stern). If the name of the author is of two names (the author has a middle name, e.g. Giovanni Andrea Bianchi), the two initials should be written without a space (e.g. Bianchi G.A., Jung C.G., Kemberg O.F., etc.). This is also valid for references within the text of the article. The year of publication should be included in brackets, immediately after the surname and initial of the first name of the author, followed by a period (e.g. “Hillman J. (1980).”).
Commas must separate one author from another, not the surname of an author from the initial of his/her first name (as required by the APA style), which might be confusing.
It is recommended to limit references as much as possible to those cited in the text.
The titles of journals and books are to be in italics (remember that the titles of journals and books in English, but not the titles of the articles, have the initials of the words, excluding articles and conjunctions, in capital letters). The titles of articles and book chapters are to be written in normal characters, without quotation marks (these are reserved for titles of conferences, papers presented at conferences, titles of theses, unpublished material, etc.). Titles should end with a period.
For books, the publishers location, followed by a colon, is to be used before the name of the publisher (this allows an easier identification of the publisher in the case of unfamiliar names). If the publication year is different from the original, it should be placed after the name of the publisher preceded by a comma. Otherwise it is adequate to indicate it in brackets after the author’s name.
If, for reasons of historical research (e.g. in the case of Freud’s works), we want to underline that a work was published one or more years after its drafting, the year of the draft is indicated first and then followed by the year of publication in square brackets, for example, S. Freud (1938 ).
For journal articles, after the title of the journal, a comma and a space, the volume number is to be written (which usually identifies the year, but must still be included for rare cases in which it does not identify the year and for international standards), followed by a comma, a space, the issue number, a colon, a space, the first and last page numbers separated by a hyphen and a period. In those cases in which the journal page numbering is not by volume number (i.e. by year) but by issue, it is essential, in order to identify the correct issue, not to omit the issue number (as however several international journals do).
The pages of book chapters, however, if specified, are to be preceded by “p.”. Exceptions, in this regard, may be made for the works of Freud and other authors that, although published as books, for the purposes of references can be considered as journals, to which should be added, however, the publisher at the end (e.g. “Jung C.G. (1910). Symbols of Transformation. Works, vol.V. Torino: Boringhieri, 1970”).
When it comes to translated foreign works, where possible include the Italian translation in brackets preceded by “trad. it.”. However, the year after the author’s name at the beginning of the reference entry must still be that of the first original language edition. For the works of Freud, the original edition can be omitted (the English Standard Edition, among other things, uses the year of publication and not the year of the actual completion of the work, while the Boringhieri edition reports, more correctly, the year in which Freud actually completed the work).
If the chapter of a volume which is cited is already cited in the references or if several chapters of the same volume are cited, it is preferable to refer all to that volume, which should only be listed once in the references.
Examples of the above possibilities and others are shown here:
Bateson G., Jackson D.D., Haley J. & Weakland J. (1956). Towards a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioral Science, 1, 4: 251-264 (trad. It.: Verso una teoria della schizofrenia. In: Cancrini L., a cura di, Verso una teoria della schizofrenia. Torino: Boringhieri, 1977, pp. 75-100).
Beck A.T., Rush A.J., Shaw B.F. & Emery G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press (trad. it.: Terapia cognitiva della depressione. Torino: Boringhieri, 1987).
Beebe B. (1983). Mother-infant mutual influence and precursors of self and object representation. In: Masling J., editor, Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Theories. Vol. 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
Bellak L. & Small L. (1965). Emergency Psychotherapy and Brief Psychotherapy, 1st ed. (2nd ed.: 1978). New York: Grune & Stratton (trad. it.: Psicoterapia d’urgenza e psicoterapia breve. Roma: Il Pensiero Scientifico, 1983).
Benedetti G. (1988). “Intervento nel dibattito sulla relazione di John Gunderson al Convegno Internazionale New Trends in Schizophrenia”, Bologna, 14-17 aprile (incisione su nastro).
Benedetti G. (1989). Comunicazione personale.
Freud S. (1899 ). L’interpretazione dei sogni. Opere, 3. Torino: Boringhieri, 1966.
Freud S. (1910). Un ricordo d’infanzia di Leonardo da Vinci. Opere, 6: 213-276. Torino: Boringhieri, 1974.